Great cities recognize that extreme wealth inequalities, long-term unemployment for the unskilled, lack of social security provisions and ensuing relative and absolute poverty, the neglect of marginalized groups such as the rapidly growing number of elderly citizens or immigrant groups, constitute great challenges for a genuinely ‘smart city’.

Social fairness is the guiding principle of social policies such as the provision of adequate housing, neighbourhood cooperation schemes, direct citizens’ participation at the grassroots level and, in particular, the support for community-oriented social enterprises.